Allamanda is native to Central and South America and belongs to the family Apocynaceae. While members of this species have been shown to have some anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity, many members of the botanical family are highly toxic.
Hoya lacunosa is native to Asia and belongs to the family Apocynaceae. Many members of this family produce a toxic latex.
Coffee arabica is native to Ethiopea and belongs to the family Rubiaceae. This species is one of the two main species used for production of coffee beans, and is said to have better flavor and lower caffeine levels. The cherries are harvested, depulped, fermented and dried before roasting for coffee beverages.
Hydnophytum moseleyanum is native to the South Pacific and is a member of the family Rubiaceae. It lives symbiotically with ants, providing habitat for ant colonies, which in turn provide defense and nutrients for the plant.
The family Rubiaceae is considered one of the largest families among the eudicots. The family is distributed primarily in the tropics. Leaves are opposite and have stiuples. Sepals and petals are 4-5 in number and are united. Stames are 4-5 and are attached to the corolla tube; the ovary is inferior. Examples of Rubiaceae that grow in Southwest Virginia include bedstraw, buttonbush and partridge-berry. Cinchona of western South America is the source of quinine (long used for its anti-malarial property), and several other family members produce useful alkaloids.