Appendix II

Style Guide

Publications will be edited for conciseness of message, consistency, grammatical style and ease of reading. The AP Stylebook is used as the guide in the use of punctuation, grammar, etc., and is the foundation to a consistent writing style in all publications. A copy of this manual is available online at Below are a few style elements that must be observed in writing copy for Emory & Henry publications. Some of these may vary from rules in the AP manual. Questions concerning style should be addressed to the Associate Director or Director of Communications.

  • Abbreviations
    • States are abbreviated in AP style. Use postal abbreviations only when writing a complete address that includes street number, city, state, and zip code. For example: In AP style, Virginia is abbreviated Va., not VA, which is the postal abbreviation.
    • Months are abbreviated when used with a specific day of the month. For example: Aug. 24. Months with five letters or fewer are always spelled out. For example: March 9, 2005. When using a month with a year and without a specific date, the month is always spelled out and no comma is placed between the month and the year. For example: January 2005.
  • Academic Degrees
    • If mention of degrees is necessary to establish someone’s credentials, the preferred form is to avoid an abbreviation and use instead a phrase such as: John Jones who has a doctorate in psychology. • Use an apostrophe in bachelor’s degree, a master’s etc., but there is no possessive in Bachelor of Arts or Master of Science.
    • Also: an associate degree (no possessive). • Use such abbreviations as B.A., M.A., LL.D. and Ph.D. only when the need to identify many individuals by degree on first reference would make the preferred form cumbersome. Use these abbreviations only after a full name — never after just a last name.
    • When used after a name, an academic abbreviation is set off by commas: John Snow, Ph.D., spoke.
    • Do not precede a name with a courtesy title for an academic degree and follow it with the abbreviation for the degree in the same reference.
  • Academic Departments

    Use lowercase except for words that are proper nouns or adjectives; the department of history, the history department, the department of English, the English department, or when the department is part of the official and formal name: University of Connecticut Department of Economics.

  • Academic Titles
    • Capitalize and spell out formal title such as chancellor, chairman, etc., when they precede a name. Lowercase everywhere.
    • Lowercase modifiers such as department in department Chairman Jerome Wiesner
  • Alumnus, alumni, alumna, alumnae

    Alumnus (alumni in the plural) when referring to a man who has attended a school. Use alumna (alumnae in the plural) for similar references to a woman. Use alumni when referring to a group of men and women.

  • Ampersand (&)
    • Use the ampersand when it is part of a company’s formal name of composition title: House & Garden, Procter & Gamble, Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway.
    • The ampersand should not otherwise be used in place of and.
  • Appalachia
    • In the broadest sense, the word applies to the entire region along the Appalachian Mountains, which extend from Maine into northern Alabama.
    • In a sense that often suggests economic depression and poverty, the reference is to sections of eastern Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, southeastern Ohio and the western portion of West Virginia.
    • The Appalachian Regional Commission, established by federal law in 1965, has a mandate to foster development in 397 counties in 13 states — all of West Virginia, and parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.
    • When the word Appalachia is used, specify the extent of the area in question. 
  • Blog

    A Web site where short entries are usually (but not always) written in chronological order. Can be news, commentary, photos, video or any combination of the above and other items. Originally a shortening of the term web log, blog is now commonly used.

  • Chairperson/Chair
    • Capitalize as a formal title before a name: company Chairperson Henry Ford, committee Chairperson Margaret Chase Smith.
    • Do not capitalize as a casual, temporary position; Meeting chair Robert Jones.
    • Use chairperson, chair or co-chair unless it is an organization’s formal title for an office.

    Emory & Henry communication differs from AP Style on this point. The above reflects E&H style.

  • Composition titles

    Apply the guidelines listed here to book titles, computer game titles, movie titles, opera titles, play titles, poem titles, album and song titles, radio and television program titles, and the titles of lectures, speeches and works of art.

    The guidelines, followed by a block of examples:

    — Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters. — Capitalize an article - the, a, an - or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title.
    — put quotation marks around the names of all such works except the Bible and books that are primarily of catalogs of reference material. In addition to catalogs, this category includes almanacs, directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, gazetteers, handbooks, and similar publications. Do not use quotation marks around such software titles as Word or Windows.
    — Translate a foreign title into English unless a work is generally know by its foreign name. An exception to this is reviews of musical performances. In those instances, generally refer to the work in the language it was sung it, so as to differentiate for the reader. However, musical compositions in Slavic languages are always referred to in their english translations. (our exceptions - book titles are italic, chapters and articles have quotes, lectures and speeches - no quotes or italics, works of art italics.)

  • Courtesy Titles

    Refer to both men and women by first and last name, without courtesy titles, on first reference: Susan Smith or Robert Smith. Refer to both men and women by last name, without courtesy titles, in subsequent references. Use the courtesy titles Mr., Miss, Ms. or Mrs. Only in direct quotations or after first reference when a woman specifically requests it; for example, where a woman prefers to be known as Mrs, Smith or Ms. Smith.

    • When it is necessary to distinguish between two people who use the same last name, as in married couples or brothers and sisters, use the first and last name, without courtesy title.
    • In cases where a person’s gender is not clear from the first name or from the story’s context, indicate the gender by using he or she in subsequent reference.
  • Dean

    Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name: Dean John Jones, Deans John Jones and Susan Smith. Lowercase in other uses: John Jones, dean of the college; the dean.

  • Dean’s list

    Lowercase in all uses: He is on the dean’s list. She is a dean’s list student.

  • Decades

    Use Arabic Figures to indicate decades of history. Use an apostrophe to indicate numerals that are left out: show plural by adding the letter s: the 1890s, the ’90s, the Gay ’90s, the 1920s, the mid-1930s.

  • Italics

    AP does not italicize words in news stories. Italics are used in Stylebook entries to highlight examples of correct and incorrect usage

  • It’s, its

    It’s is a contraction for it is or it has: It’s up to you. Its been a long time. Its is the possessive form of the neuter pronoun: The company lost its assets.

  • Lectern

    A speaker stands behind a lectern, on a podium or rostrum, or in the pulpit.

  • Magazine names

    Capitalize the initial letters of the name but do not place it in quotes. Lowercase magazine unless it is part of the publication’s formal title: Harper’s Magazine, Newsweek magazine, time magazine. Check the masthead if in doubt.

  • Media

    In the sense of mass communication, such as magazines, newspapers, the news services, radio, television and online, the word is plural: the news media are resisting attempt to limit their freedom.

  • Months
    • Capitalize the names of fonts in all uses. When a month is used with a specific date, abbreviate only Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. Spell out when using alone, or with a year alone.
    • When a phrase lists only a month and a year, do not separate the year with commas. When a phrase refers to a month, day and year, set off the year with commas.
    • EXAMPLES: January 1972 was a cold month. Jan. 2 was the coldest day of the month. His birthday is May 8. Feb. 14, 1987, was the target date. She testified at it was Friday, Dec. 3, when the accident occurred.
    • In tabular material, use these three-letter forms without a period: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec.
  • Music
    • Capitalize, but do not use quotation marks, on descriptive titles for orchestral works: Bach’s Suite No. 1 for Orchestra: Beethoven’s Serenade for Flute, Violin and Viola.
    • If the instrumentation is not part of the title but is added for explanatory purposes, the names of the instruments are lowercased: Mozart’s Sinfonia Concertante in E Flat Major for violin and viola. If in doubt lowercase the names of instruments.
    • Use quotation marks for nonmusical terms in a title: Beethoven’s “Eroica” symphony. If the work has a special full title, all of it is quoted: “Symphonie Fantastique,” “Rhapsody in Blue.” In subsequent references lowercase; symphony, concerto, etc.
  • New Year’s, New Year’s Day, New Year’s Eve

    But: What will the new year bring?

    The federal legal holiday is observed on Friday if Jan. 1 falls on a Saturday, on Monday if it falls on Sunday.

  • Newspaper Names
    • Capitalize the in a newspaper’s name if that is the way the publication prefers to be known. Do not place name in quotes. Lowercase the before newspaper names if a story mentions several papers, some of which use the as part of the name and some of which do not. Where location is needed but is not part of the official name, use parentheses: The Huntsville (Ala.) Times.
    • Consult the International Year Book published by Editor & Publisher to determine whether a twoname combination is hyphenated.
  • Numbers
    • Numbers one through nine are always spelled out, except when used in dates or to define age: April 5; She is 3 years old.
    • Numbers 10 and above are always written numerically.
  • Organization and institutions
    • Capitalize the full names of organizations and institutions: the American Medical Association, First Presbyterian Church.
    • Subsidiaries: Capitalize the names of major subdivisions: the Pontiac Motor Division of General Motors.
    • Internal Elements: Use lower case for internal elements of an organization when they have names that are widely used generic terms: the board of directors of General Motors.
    • Capitalize internal elements of an organization when they have names that are not widely used generic terms: the General Assembly of the World Council of Churches.
    • Flip-flopped names: Retain capital letters when commonly accepted practice flops a name to delete a word of: College of the Holy Cross = Holy Cross College.
    • Abbreviations & acronyms: Some organizations and institutions recognized by abbreviation: GOP, NAACP, NATO
  • Podcast

    A downloadable audio program.

  • Punctuation
    • Use commas to separate elements in a series, but do not put a comma before the conjunction in a simple series: The flag is red, white and blue. He would nominate Tom, Dick or Harry. Put a comma before the concluding conjunction in a series, however, if an integral element of the series requires a conjunction: I had orange juice, toast, and ham and eggs for breakfast. Use a comma also before the concluding conjunction in a complex series of phrases: The main points to consider are whether the athletes are skillful enough to compete, whether they have the stamina to endure the training, and whether they have the proper mental attitude.
    • When a sentence ends in a quote, all punctuation ends inside the quotation marks. For example: Helen said, “Emory & Henry is the greatest college in the country!”
    • In writing Emory & Henry, the ampersand is always used.
    • Times are written as follows: 5 p.m., 3:30 a.m. Never use “o’clock” unless in a direct quote. Never use the double zero in expressing a time, such as 5:00 p.m. Always lowercase a.m. and p.m.
  • Times
    • Use figures except for noon and midnight. Use a colon to separate hours from minutes: 11 a.m., 1 p.m., 3:30 p.m.
    • Avoid such redundancies as 10 a.m. this morning or 10 p.m. tonight. Use 10 a.m. or 10 p.m. Monday, etc. as required by the norms in time element. The construction 4 o’clock is acceptable, but time listings with a.m. or p.m. are preferred.
  • Titles

    Titles of newspapers, magazines, plays and books are italicized. Titles of articles, poetry, movies, and chapters within books are put in quotation marks.

  • Titles

    Formal titles: Capitalize formal titles when they are used immediately before one or more names: Pope Benedict XVI. Titles abbreviated but capitalized are Dr., Gov., Lt. Gov., Rep, Sen. For obscure unique titles include the word the: John Jones, the deputy vice president, spoke.

  • Usage

    As recommended by the international Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP), fundraising is always spelled as one word.

    Although it is correct to say, “Smith was graduated from an institution,” AP style suggests that you write, “Smith graduated from…”

    The term “freshman” should be replaced with the phrase “first-year student.” Sophomores, juniors and seniors are to be referred to by these designations or as upperclass students (not upperclassmen).

  • Who, whom

    Who is the pronoun used for references to human beings and to animals with a name. It is grammatically the subject (never the object) of a sentence, clause or phrase: The woman who rented the room left the window open. Who is there? Whom is used when someone is the object of a verb or preposition: The woman to whom the room was rented left the window open. Whom do you wish to see?

  • Women
    • Women should receive the same treatment as men in all areas of coverage. Physical descriptions, sexist references, demeaning stereotypes and condescending phrases should not be used:
    • Should not assume maleness when both sexes are involved. Avoid words such as newspaperman or congressman when referring to a women.
    • Copy should not express surprise that an attractive woman can be professionally accomplished
    • Copy should not gratuitously mention family relations. Use same criteria for men and women regarding reference to marital status and family situation.